(CLICK HERE for Non-factor related publications on Angiogenesis)
|In: Clinical Cancer Research 15, 1741, March 1, 2009. Published Online First February 24, 2009
High VEGFR-3–positive Circulating Lymphatic/Vascular Endothelial Progenitor Cell Level Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Human Small Cell Lung Cancer
Krisztina Bogos, Ferenc Renyi-Vamos, Judit Dobos, Istvan Kenessey, Jozsef Tovari1, Jozsef Timar, Janos Strausz, Gyula Ostoros, Walter Klepetko, Hendrik Jan Ankersmit, Gyorgy Lang, Mir AliReza Hoda, Patrick Nierlich and Balazs Dome
Purpose: The newly identified bone marrow–derived cell population, called lymphatic/vascular endothelial progenitor cells (LVEPC), has been shown to contribute to lymph capillary growth in experimental tumor systems. The clinical significance of these cells has not yet been investigated in a human malignancy. Our aim was to study whether peripheral blood circulating LVEPCs participate in the progression of human small cell lung cancer (SCLC).
Experimental Design: A total of 88 patients with limited-stage SCLC and 32 tumor-free control subjects were included. Peripheral blood circulating LVEPC labeled with CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3) antibodies and the serum levels of the key lymphangiogenic molecule VEGF-C were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively.
Results: CD34-positive/VEGFR3-positive LVEPC levels were significantly increased in patients (versus controls; P < 0.01), and there was also a significant relationship between LVEPC counts and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01). High pretreatment circulating LVEPC numbers correlated with poor overall survival (P < 0.01). Although we observed significantly elevated VEGF-C concentrations in patients (versus controls; P < 0.01), there was no significant correlation between VEGF-C and LVEPC levels. Moreover, no significant differences in peripheral blood VEGF-C levels were seen between patients subgrouped by clinicopathologic variables including tumor and lymph node stages and survival.
Conclusions: Peripheral blood levels of bone marrow–derived LVEPCs are significantly increased in patients with SCLC and correlate with lymphatic involvement and prognosis. This is the first study that shows evidence of increased numbers of circulating LVEPC in patients with a malignant tumor.
|In: Blood, 26 February 2009, Vol. 113, No. 9, pp. 2108-2117
Sphingosine kinase regulates the rate of endothelial progenitor cell differentiation
Claudine S. Bonder, Wai Y. Sun, Tyson Matthews, Carlos Cassano, Xiaochun Li, Hayley S. Ramshaw, Stuart M. Pitson, Angel F. Lopez, P. Toby Coates, Richard L. Proia, Mathew A. Vadas, and Jennifer R. Gamble
Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are incorporated into foci of neovascularization where they undergo differentiation to mature endothelial cells (ECs). We show here that the enzyme sphingosine kinase-1 (SK-1) regulates the rate and direction of EPC differentiation without effect on the hematopoietic compartment. EPCs have high levels of SK-1 activity, which diminishes with differentiation and is, at least partially, responsible for maintaining their EPC phenotype. EPCs from SK-1 knockout mice form more adherent EC units and acquire a mature EC phenotype more rapidly. Conversely, EPCs from mice overexpressing SK-1 in the EC compartment are retarded in their differentiation. Exogenous regulation of SK-1 levels in normal EPCs, by genetic and pharmacologic means, including the immunomodulating drug FTY720, recapitulates these effects on EC differentiation. SK-1 knockout mice have higher levels of circulating EPCs, an exaggerated response to erythropoietin-induced EPC mobilization, and, in a mouse model of kidney ischemia reperfusion injury, exhibit a recovery similar to that of ischemic mice administered exogenous EPCs. Thus, SK-1 is a critical player in EPC differentiation into EC pointing to the potential utility of SK-1 modifying agents in the specific manipulation of endothelial development and repair.
|In: Blood, 29 January 2009, Vol. 113, No. 5, pp. 1192-1199
Snrk-1 is involved in multiple steps of angioblast development and acts via notch signaling pathway in artery-vein specification in vertebrates
Chang Z. Chun, Sukhbir Kaur, Ganesh V. Samant, Ling Wang, Kallal Pramanik, Maija K. Garnaas, Keguo Li, Lyndsay Field, Debabrata Mukhopadhyay, and Ramani Ramchandran
In vertebrates, molecular mechanisms dictate angioblasts' migration and subsequent differentiation into arteries and veins. In this study, we used a microarray screen to identify a novel member of the sucrose nonfermenting related kinase (snrk-1) family of serine/threonine kinases expressed specifically in the embryonic zebrafish vasculature and investigated its function in vivo. Using gain- and loss-of-function studies in vivo, we show that Snrk-1 plays an essential role in the migration, maintenance, and differentiation of angioblasts. The kinase function of Snrk-1 is critical for migration and maintenance, but not for the differentiation of angioblasts. In vitro, snrk-1 knockdown endothelial cells show only defects in migration. The snrk-1 gene acts downstream or parallel to notch and upstream of gridlock during artery-vein specification, and the human gene compensates for zebrafish snrk-1 knockdown, suggesting evolutionary conservation of function.
|In: Circulation Research. 2008;103:796; Published online before print September 5, 2008
The Wnt Antagonist Dickkopf-1 Mobilizes Vasculogenic Progenitor Cells via Activation of the Bone Marrow Endosteal Stem Cell Niche
Alexandra Aicher, Orit Kollet, Christopher Heeschen, Stefan Liebner, Carmen Urbich, Christian Ihling, Alessia Orlandi, Tsvee Lapidot, Andreas M. Zeiher, Stefanie Dimmeler
Therapeutic mobilization of vasculogenic progenitor cells is a novel strategy to enhance neovascularization for tissue repair. Prototypical mobilizing agents such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilize vasculogenic progenitor cells from the bone marrow concomitantly with inflammatory cells. In the bone marrow, mobilization is regulated in the stem cell niche, in which endosteal cells such as osteoblasts and osteoclasts play a key role. Because Wnt signaling regulates endosteal cells, we examined whether the Wnt signaling antagonist Dickkopf (Dkk)-1 is involved in the mobilization of vasculogenic progenitor cells. Using TOP-GAL transgenic mice to determine activation of β-catenin, we demonstrate that Dkk-1 regulates endosteal cells in the bone marrow stem cell niche and subsequently mobilizes vasculogenic and hematopoietic progenitors cells without concomitant mobilization of inflammatory neutrophils. The mobilization of vasculogenic progenitors required the presence of functionally active osteoclasts, as demonstrated in PTP-deficient mice with defective osteoclast function. Mechanistically, Dkk-1 induced the osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL, which subsequently stimulated the release of the major bone-resorbing protease cathepsin K. Eventually, the Dkk-1–induced mobilization of bone marrow–derived vasculogenic progenitors enhanced neovascularization in Matrigel plugs. Thus, these data show that Dkk-1 is a mobilizer of vasculogenic progenitors but not of inflammatory cells, which could be of great clinical importance to enhance regenerative cell therapy.
|In: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 7, 2536-2546, August 1, 2008
Human endothelial precursor cells express tumor endothelial marker 1/endosialin/CD248
Rebecca G. Bagley, Cecile Rouleau, Thia St. Martin, Paula Boutin, William Weber, Melanie Ruzek, Nakayuki Honma, Mariana Nacht, Srinivas Shankara, Shiro Kataoka, Isao Ishida, Bruce L. Roberts and Beverly A. Teicher
Angiogenesis occurs during normal physiologic processes as well as under pathologic conditions such as tumor growth. Serial analysis of gene expression profiling revealed genes [tumor endothelial markers (TEM)] that are overexpressed in tumor endothelial cells compared with normal adult endothelial cells. Because blood vessel development of malignant tumors under certain conditions may include endothelial precursor cells (EPC) recruited from bone marrow, we investigated TEM expression in EPC. The expression of TEM1 or endosialin (CD248) and other TEM has been discovered in a population of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2+/CD31+/CD45–/VE-cadherin+ EPC derived from human CD133+/CD34+ cells. EPC share some properties with fully differentiated endothelial cells from normal tissue, yet reverse transcription-PCR and flow cytometry reveal that EPC express higher levels of endosialin at the molecular and protein levels. The elevated expression of endosialin in EPC versus mature endothelial cells suggests that endosialin is involved in the earlier stages of tumor angiogenesis. Anti-endosialin antibodies inhibited EPC migration and tube formation in vitro. In vivo, immunohistochemistry indicated that human EPC continued to express endosialin protein in a Matrigel plug angiogenesis assay established in nude mice. Anti-endosialin antibodies delivered systemically at 25 mg/kg were also able to inhibit circulating murine EPC in nude mice bearing s.c. SKNAS tumors. EPC and bone marrow–derived cells have been shown previously to incorporate into malignant blood vessels in some instances, yet they remain controversial in the field. The data presented here on endothelial genes that are up-regulated in tumor vasculature and in EPC support the hypothesis that the angiogenesis process in cancer can involve EPC.
|In: Nature 453, 524-528 (22 May 2008)
Human cardiovascular progenitor cells develop from a KDR+ embryonic-stem-cell-derived population
Lei Yang, Mark H. Soonpaa, Eric D. Adler, Torsten K. Roepke, Steven J. Kattman, Marion Kennedy, Els Henckaerts, Kristina Bonham, Geoffrey W. Abbott, R. Michael Linden, Loren J. Field & Gordon M. Keller
The functional heart is comprised of distinct mesoderm-derived lineages including cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Studies in the mouse embryo and the mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation model have provided evidence indicating that these three lineages develop from a common Flk-1+ (kinase insert domain protein receptor, also known as Kdr) cardiovascular progenitor that represents one of the earliest stages in mesoderm specification to the cardiovascular lineages1. To determine whether a comparable progenitor is present during human cardiogenesis, we analysed the development of the cardiovascular lineages in human embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures. Here we show that after induction with combinations of activin A, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, also known as FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, also known as VEGFA) and dickkopf homolog 1 (DKK1) in serum-free media, human embryonic-stem-cell-derived embryoid bodies generate a KDRlow/C-KIT(CD117)neg population that displays cardiac, endothelial and vascular smooth muscle potential in vitro and, after transplantation, in vivo. When plated in monolayer cultures, these KDRlow/C-KITneg cells differentiate to generate populations consisting of greater than 50% contracting cardiomyocytes. Populations derived from the KDRlow/C-KITneg fraction give rise to colonies that contain all three lineages when plated in methylcellulose cultures. Results from limiting dilution studies and cell-mixing experiments support the interpretation that these colonies are clones, indicating that they develop from a cardiovascular colony-forming cell. Together, these findings identify a human cardiovascular progenitor that defines one of the earliest stages of human cardiac development.
|In: PNAS | May 6, 2008| vol. 105 | no. 18 | 6620-6625
Bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial precursors do not contribute to vascular endothelium and are not needed for tumor growth
Susanna Purhonen, Jarmo Palm, Derrick Rossi, Nina Kaskenpää, Iiro Rajantie, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Kari Alitalo, Irving L. Weissman, and Petri Salven
The mechanisms by which bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells might contribute to angiogenesis and the origin of neovascular endothelial cells (ECs) are controversial. Neovascular ECs have been proposed to originate from VEGF receptor 2-expressing (VEGFR-2+) stem cells mobilized from the BM by VEGF or tumors, and it is thought that angiogenesis and tumor growth may depend on such endothelial precursors or progenitors. We studied the mobilization of BM cells to circulation by inoculating mice with VEGF polypeptides, adenoviral vectors expressing VEGF, or tumors. We induced angiogenesis by syngeneic melanomas, APCmin adenomas, adenoviral VEGF delivery, or matrigel plugs in four different genetically tagged universal or endothelial cell-specific chimeric mouse models, and subsequently analyzed the contribution of BM-derived cells to endothelium in a wide range of time points. To study the existence of circulating ECs in a nonmyeloablative setting, pairs of genetically marked parabiotic mice with a shared anastomosed circulatory system were created. We did not observe specific mobilization of VEGFR-2+ cells to circulation by VEGF or tumors. During angiogenesis, abundant BM-derived perivascular cells were recruited close to blood vessel wall ECs but did not form part of the endothelium. No circulation-derived vascular ECs were observed in the parabiosis experiments. Our results show that no BM-derived VEGFR-2+ or other EC precursors contribute to vascular endothelium and that cancer growth does not require BM-derived endothelial progenitors. Endothelial differentiation is not a typical in vivo function of normal BM-derived stem cells in adults, and it has to be an extremely rare event if it occurs at all.