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|In: Clinical Cancer Research 15, 1635, March 1, 2009. Published Online First February 24, 2009
Cytosolic Phospholipase A2: Targeting Cancer through the Tumor Vasculature
Amanda Linkous, Ling Geng, Andrej Lyshchik, Dennis E. Hallahan and Eugenia M. Yazlovitskaya
Purpose: In vascular endothelial cells, low doses of ionizing radiation trigger the immediate activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). This event initiates prosurvival signaling that could be responsible for radioresistance of tumor vasculature. Thus, the development of radiosensitizers targeting these survival pathways may enhance tumor response to radiation therapy. Arachidonyltrifluoromethyl Ketone (AACOCF3), a specific cPLA2 inhibitor, was studied as a potential radiosensitizer.
Experimental Design: Vascular endothelial cells (3B11 and MPMEC) and lung tumor cells (LLC and H460) were treated with 1 µmol/L AACOCF3 for 30 minutes prior to irradiation. Treatment response was evaluated by clonogenic survival, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), tubule formation, and migration assays. For in vivo experiments, mice with LLC or H460 tumors in the hind limbs were treated for 5 consecutive days with 10 mg/kg AACOCF3 administered daily 30 minutes prior to irradiation. Treatment response was assessed by tumor growth delay, Power Doppler Sonography, and immunohistochemistry.
Results: In cell culture experiments, inhibition of cPLA2 with AACOCF3 prevented radiation-induced activation of ERK1/2 and decreased clonogenic survival of irradiated vascular endothelial cells but not the lung tumor cells. Treatment with AACOCF3 also attenuated tubule formation and migration in irradiated vascular endothelial cells. In both tumor mouse models, treatment with AACOCF3 prior to irradiation significantly suppressed tumor growth and decreased overall tumor blood flow and vascularity. Increased apoptosis in both tumor cells and tumor vascular endothelium was determined as a possible mechanism of the observed effect.
Conclusion: These findings identify cPLA2 as a novel molecular target for tumor sensitization to radiation therapy through the tumor vasculature.
|In: Cancer Research 69, 2133, March 1, 2009. Published Online First February 17, 2009
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Invoking an Anti-Angiogenic Program in Tumor-Educated Macrophages
Tim D. Eubank, Ryan D. Roberts, Mahmood Khan, Jennifer M. Curry, Gerard J. Nuovo, Periannan Kuppusamy and Clay B. Marsh
Tumor-educated macrophages facilitate tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. We discovered that granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) blocked macrophages vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) activity by producing soluble VEGF receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) and determined the effect on tumor-associated macrophage behavior and tumor growth. We show GM-CSF treatment of murine mammary tumors slowed tumor growth and slowed metastasis. These tumors had more macrophages, fewer blood vessels, and lower oxygen concentrations. This effect was sVEGFR-1 dependent. In situ hybridization and flow cytometry identified macrophages as the primary source of sVEGFR-1. These data suggest that GM-CSF can re-educate macrophages to reduce angiogenesis and metastases in murine breast cancer.
|In: Cancer Research 69, 1976, March 1, 2009. Published Online First February 17, 2009
Down-regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Is a Major Molecular Determinant of Proteasome Inhibitor–Mediated Antiangiogenic Action in Endothelial Cells
Markus Meissner, Gabi Reichenbach, Monika Stein, Igor Hrgovic, Roland Kaufmann and Jens Gille
The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway for intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. This system controls a wide range of cellular regulatory proteins, including transcription factors and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Recent evidence also established the importance of the proteasome in tumor development, showing antitumor and antiangiogenic actions by using selective inhibitors in vivo. As signaling via the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) pathway is critical for angiogenic responses to occur, we explored whether antiangiogenic effects due to proteasome inhibition were partly mediated through decreased endothelial VEGFR2 expression. This study shows that different proteasome inhibitors blocked VEGFR2 expression in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. This blockade was paralleled by the respective inhibition of the formation of capillary-like structures and endothelial cell migration. In contrast, neither tie-2 nor VEGFR1 expression was significantly affected by proteasome inhibitor treatment. The suppressive effects on VEGFR2 expression were not conveyed by increased shedding or a decrease in protein half-life, suggesting that transcriptional mechanisms accounted for the observed effects. In line with this conclusion, proteasome inhibition significantly suppressed VEGFR2 mRNA accumulation. In addition, inhibitor treatment considerably decreased the transcriptional activity of 5' deletional VEGFR2 promoter gene constructs. Proteasome inhibition–mediated repression was controlled by a GC-rich region that harbored one consensus Sp1-binding site. Subsequent EMSA analyses showed decreased constitutive Sp1-dependent DNA binding in response to proteasome inhibition. In addition, we could show that proteasome inhibitors reduced VEGFR2 mRNA stability. Therefore, VEGFR2 expression may constitute a critical molecular target of proteasome inhibitors that may mediate their antiangiogenic effects in vivo.
|In: PNAS November 25, 2008 vol. 105 no. 47 18513-18518
Anti-VEGF agents confer survival advantages to tumor-bearing mice by improving cancer-associated systemic syndrome
Yuan Xue, Piotr Religa, Renhai Cao, Anker Jon Hansen, Franco Lucchini, Bernt Jones, Yan Wu, Zhenping Zhu, Bronislaw Pytowski,
Yuxiang Liang, Weide Zhong, Paolo Vezzoni, Björn Rozell and Yihai Cao
The underlying mechanism by which anti-VEGF agents prolong cancer patient survival is poorly understood. We show that in a mouse tumor model, VEGF systemically impairs functions of multiple organs including those in the hematopoietic and endocrine systems, leading to early death. Anti-VEGF antibody, bevacizumab, and anti-VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2), but not anti-VEGFR-1, reversed VEGF-induced cancer-associated systemic syndrome (CASS) and prevented death in tumor-bearing mice. Surprisingly, VEGFR2 blockage improved survival by rescuing mice from CASS without significantly compromising tumor growth, suggesting that “off-tumor” VEGF targets are more sensitive than the tumor vasculature to anti-VEGF drugs. Similarly, VEGF-induced CASS occurred in a spontaneous breast cancer mouse model overexpressing neu. Clinically, VEGF expression and CASS severity positively correlated in various human cancers. These findings define novel therapeutic targets of anti-VEGF agents and provide mechanistic insights into the action of this new class of clinically available anti-VEGF cancer drugs.
|In: Cancer Research 68, 9112-9115, November 15, 2008
Does the Renin-Angiotensin System Participate in Regulation of Human Vasculogenesis and Angiogenesis?
Aarif Y. Khakoo, Richard L. Sidman, Renata Pasqualini and Wadih Arap
Several lines of evidence suggest that hypertension and angiogenesis may be related phenomena but a functional link remains elusive. Here, we propose that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), in addition to its central role in arterial hypertension, also regulates blood vessel formation during normal development and cancer. This mechanistic hypothesis is based on reports of biochemical, genetic, clinical, and epidemiologic data reviewed herein. Species differences between the RAS of rodents and humans likely account for why such a fundamental role in angiogenesis went unrecognized for so long. If proven correct, this hypothesis carries many implications for the medical practices of cardiology, oncology, and neonatology.
|In: Cancer Research 68, 8626-8634, October 15, 2008
Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and CD105 Promote the Migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma–Derived Endothelium
Anna Benetti, Angiola Berenzi, Marco Gambarotti, Emirena Garrafa, Maurizio Gelati, Enrico Dessy, Nazario Portolani, Tullio Piardi, Stefano Maria Giulini, Arnaldo Caruso, Gloria Invernici, Eugenio Agostino Parati, Roberto Nicosia and Giulio Alessandri
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of most malignant and aggressive human tumors. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and its coreceptor CD105 have been shown to contribute to HCC malignant progression. TGF-β1 and CD105 have also been implicated in angiogenesis, but their role in the vascularization of HCC has not been investigated. To fill this gap, we studied the effect of TGF-β1 and CD105 on HCC-derived endothelium. By using immunomagnetic beads, we isolated and cultured endothelial cells (ECs) from HCC (HCC-EC) and adjacent nonneoplastic tissue (nNL-ECs) obtained from 24 liver biopsies. HCC and nNL biopsies were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CD105, TGF-β1, Ve-cadherin (Ve-cad), CD44, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. Compared with nNL-ECs, HCC-ECs had higher expression of CD105, enhanced spontaneous motility, and greater capacity to migrate in response to TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL), particularly in the presence of a fibronectin matrix. The chemotactic effect of TGF-β1 was blocked by anti-CD105 antibodies and correlated with the grade of HCC malignancy. Histologic examination of HCC biopsies showed that HCCs with the worse malignant features had the highest expression of TGF-β1, CD105, and angiogenic markers (Ve-cad and CD44). Because CD105 was highly expressed in microvessels at the tumor periphery and TGF-β1 staining was only found in neoplastic hepatocytes, we conclude that HCC-derived TGF-β1 may act as a chemoattractant for CD105-expressing ECs and as a promoter of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, drugs that selectively target the TGF-β1/CD105 axis may interfere with HCC-related angiogenesis and HCC progression.
|In: Clinical Cancer Research 14, 6556-6563, October 15, 2008
The Wnt-5a–Derived Hexapeptide Foxy-5 Inhibits Breast Cancer Metastasis In vivo by Targeting Cell Motility
Annette Säfholm, Johanna Tuomela, Jeanette Rosenkvist, Janna Dejmek, Pirkko Härkönen and Tommy Andersson
Purpose: An inherent problem in breast cancer treatment is that current therapeutic approaches fail to specifically target the dissemination of breast cancer cells from the primary tumor. Clinical findings show that the loss of Wnt-5a protein expression in the primary breast tumor predicts a faster tumor spread, and in vitro analyses reveal that it does so by inhibiting tumor cell migration. Therefore, we hypothesized that the reconstitution of Wnt-5a signaling could be a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit breast cancer metastasis.
Experimental Design: We used in vitro techniques to show that 4T1 mouse breast cancer cells responded to the reconstitution of Wnt-5a signaling using our novel Wnt-5a mimicking hexapeptide, Foxy-5, in the same way as human breast cancer cells. Therefore, we could subsequently study its effect in vivo on the metastatic spread of cancer following the inoculation of 4T1 cells into mice.
Results: In vitro analyses revealed that both recombinant Wnt-5a and the Wnt-5a–derived Foxy-5 peptide impaired migration and invasion without affecting apoptosis or proliferation of 4T1 breast cancer cells. The in vivo experiments show that i.p. injections of Foxy-5 inhibited metastasis of inoculated 4T1 breast cancer cells from the mammary fat pad to the lungs and liver by 70% to 90%.
Conclusions: These data provide proof of principle that the reconstitution of Wnt-5a signaling in breast cancer cells is a novel approach to impair breast tumor metastasis by targeting cell motility. In combination with existing therapies, this approach represents a potential novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of breast cancer patients.
|In: Clinical Cancer Research 14, 6371-6375, October 15, 2008
Pathways Mediating Resistance to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Targeted Therapy
Lee M. Ellis and Daniel J. Hicklin
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)–targeted therapy has become an important treatment option for the management of a number of human malignancies. Unfortunately, a significant number of patients do not respond to VEGF-targeted therapy when used as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy. Furthermore, the duration of benefit from VEGF-targeted therapy can be relatively short (weeks to months). Ultimately, the vast majority of patients who initially respond to therapy will develop resistance. To date, the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with resistance to VEGF-targeted agents are poorly understood. The mechanisms of action of anti-VEGF therapy are diverse, and it is entirely possible that resistance mechanisms are similarly diverse and depend on the tumor type. A better understanding of these mechanisms will help in the selection of those patients that are more likely to benefit from VEGF-targeted therapy and also provide for the rational development of therapies that circumvent or overcome resistance.