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|In: J. Clin. Invest. 118(12): 3904-3916 (2008)
AIP1 functions as an endogenous inhibitor of VEGFR2-mediated signaling and inflammatory angiogenesis in mice
Haifeng Zhang, Yun He, Shengchuan Dai, Zhe Xu, Yan Luo, Ting Wan, Dianhong Luo, Dennis Jones, Shibo Tang, Hong Chen, William C. Sessa and Wang Min
ASK1-interacting protein-1 (AIP1), a recently identified member of the Ras GTPase-activating protein family, is highly expressed in vascular ECs and regulates EC apoptosis in vitro. However, its function in vivo has not been established. To study this, we generated AIP1-deficient mice (KO mice). Although these mice showed no obvious defects in vascular development, they exhibited dramatically enhanced angiogenesis in 2 models of inflammatory angiogenesis. In one of these models, the enhanced angiogenesis observed in the KO mice was associated with increased VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling. Consistent with this, VEGF-induced ear, cornea, and retina neovascularization were greatly augmented in KO mice and the enhanced retinal angiogenesis was markedly diminished by overexpression of AIP1. In vitro, VEGF-induced EC migration was inhibited by AIP1 overexpression, whereas it was augmented by both AIP1 knockout and knockdown, with the enhanced EC migration caused by AIP1 knockdown being associated with increased VEGFR2 signaling. We present mechanistic data that suggest AIP1 is recruited to the VEGFR2-PI3K complex, binding to both VEGFR2 and PI3K p85, at a late phase of the VEGF response, and that this leads to inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling. Taken together, our data demonstrate that AIP1 functions as an endogenous inhibitor in VEGFR2-mediated adaptive angiogenesis in mice.
|In: The Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 183, No. 3, 527-542
Endothelial adhesion receptors are recruited to adherent leukocytes by inclusion in preformed tetraspanin nanoplatforms
Olga Barreiro, Moreno Zamai, María Yáñez-Mó, Emilio Tejera, Pedro López-Romero, Peter N. Monk, Enrico Gratton, Valeria R. Caiolfa, and Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, receptors for leukocyte integrins, are recruited to cell–cell contact sites on the apical membrane of activated endothelial cells. In this study, we show that this recruitment is independent of ligand engagement, actin cytoskeleton anchorage, and heterodimer formation. Instead, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are recruited by inclusion within specialized preformed tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, which act as endothelial adhesive platforms (EAPs). Using advanced analytical fluorescence techniques, we have characterized the diffusion properties at the single-molecule level, nanoscale organization, and specific intradomain molecular interactions of EAPs in living primary endothelial cells. This study provides compelling evidence for the existence of EAPs as physical entities at the plasma membrane, distinct from lipid rafts. Scanning electron microscopy of immunogold-labeled samples treated with a specific tetraspanin-blocking peptide identify nanoclustering of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 within EAPs as a novel mechanism for supramolecular organization that regulates the leukocyte integrin–binding capacity of both endothelial receptors during extravasation.
|In: accompanying editorial: The Journal of Cell Biology, Vol. 183, No. 3, 375-376
Dances with leukocytes: how tetraspanin-enriched microdomains assemble to form endothelial adhesive platforms
Klaus Ley and Hong Zhang
Rather than just providing an unstructured adhesive surface for leukocytes, cytokine-activated endothelial cells assemble preexisting tetraspanin-enriched microdomains to form endothelial adhesive platforms (EAPs) and endothelial docking structures. In this issue of the Journal of Cell Biology, Barreiro et al. (Barreiro, O., M. Zamai, M. Yáñez-Mó, E. Tejera, P. López-Romero, P.N. Monk, E. Gratton, V.R. Caiolfa, and F. Sánchez-Madrid. 2008. J. Cell Biol. 183:527–542) show how the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)–1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)–1 form nanoclusters with the tetraspanins CD9 and CD151 in a physiologically relevant system. Furthermore, convincing biochemical data suggest that these structures are distinct from lipid rafts.
|In: Journal of Cell Science 121, 3842-3850 (2008); First published online 28 October 2008
Involvement of endothelial ephrin-B2 in adhesion and transmigration of EphB-receptor-expressing monocytes
Dennis Pfaff, Mélanie Héroult, Maria Riedel, Yvonne Reiss, Robert Kirmse, Thomas Ludwig, Thomas Korff, Markus Hecker and Hellmut G. Augustin
The vascular endothelium is a crucial interface that controls the recruitment of circulating leukocytes. Based on the luminal expression of the ephrin-B2 ligand by endothelial cells (ECs) and the expression of EphB receptors (EphBRs) by circulating monocytes, we hypothesized that EphBR-ephrinB interactions are involved in monocyte adhesion. Adhesion experiments with monocytic cells were performed on ECs that overexpressed either full-length ephrin-B2 or cytoplasmically truncated ephrin-B2 (C-ephrin-B2). Atomic force microscopy confirmed similar adhesive strengths of EphBR-expressing J774 cells to ECs that either overexpressed full-length ephrin-B2 or truncated C-ephrin-B2 (1-minute interaction). Yet, adhesion experiments under static or flow conditions for 30 minutes demonstrated the preferential adhesion of monocytic cells to ECs that overexpressed full-length ephrin-B2 but not to C-ephrin-B2 or to ECs that had been mock transduced. Adhesion was blocked by ephrin-B2-specific and EphBR-specific antibodies. Correspondingly, adhesion of EphB4-receptor-overexpressing monocytes to ephrin-B2-positive ECs was further augmented. Trafficking experiments of cell-surface molecules revealed that, prior to internalization, the resulting EphB4-receptor–ephrin-B2 complex translocated from the luminal surface to inter-endothelial junctions. Lastly, full-length ephrin-B2 in ECs was also involved in monocyte transmigration. Collectively, our study identifies a role of EphBR-ephrinB interactions as a new step in the cascade of events leading to monocyte adhesion and transmigration through the vascular endothelium.
|In: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2008;28:1989-1995
Angiopoietin-2 Stimulates Blood Flow Recovery After Femoral Artery Occlusion by Inducing Inflammation and Arteriogenesis
Sarah L. Tressel; Hyongbum Kim; Chih-Wen Ni; Kyunghwa Chang; Juan C. Velasquez-Castano; W. Robert Taylor; Young-sup Yoon; Hanjoong Jo
Objective— Recently, we have shown that shear stress regulates the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells in vitro by an Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2)–dependent mechanism; however its pathophysiological significance in vivo was not clear. We hypothesized that Ang2 plays an important role in blood flow recovery after arterial occlusion in vivo by regulating angiogenesis and arteriogenesis.
Methods and Results— C57Bl/6J mice underwent femoral artery ligation and were injected with a specific Ang2 inhibitor, L1-10, or vehicle for 10 days. Ang2 mRNA was upregulated at day 2, and Ang2 protein was upregulated at day 2, 5, and 7 in the ligated hindlimb. L1-10 treatment significantly blunted blood flow recovery. L1-10 decreased smooth muscle cell coverage of neovessels without affecting capillary density, suggesting a specific role for Ang2 in arteriogenesis. Mechanistically, L1-10 decreased expression of intercellular and vascular cell adhesion molecules as well as infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in the ischemic tissue. Although L1-10 had no effect on the number of CD11b+ cells (monocytes/macrophages) mobilized in the bone marrow, it maintained elevated numbers of circulating CD11b+ cells in the peripheral blood.
Conclusions— These results suggest that Ang2 induced in ischemic tissue plays a critical role in blood flow recovery by stimulating inflammation and arteriogenesis.
We investigated the role of Angiopoietin-2 in neovascularization during ischemia. We found that inhibiting Angiopoietin-2 impaired blood flow recovery during hindlimb ischemia and reduced arteriogenesis and inflammation. Angiopoietin-2 inhibition caused reduced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, resulting in reduced monocyte migration into the tissue and increased monocytes in the circulation.
|In: Cancer Research 68, 8066-8075, October 1, 2008
Cancer Immunotherapy Targeting the High Molecular Weight Melanoma-Associated Antigen Protein Results in a Broad Antitumor Response and Reduction of Pericytes in the Tumor Vasculature
Paulo Cesar Maciag, Matthew M. Seavey, Zhen-Kun Pan, Soldano Ferrone and Yvonne Paterson
The high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen (HMW-MAA), also known as melanoma chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, has been used as a target for the immunotherapy of melanoma. This antigen is expressed on the cell surface and has a restricted distribution in normal tissues. Besides its expression in a broad range of transformed cells, this antigen is also found in pericytes, which are important for tumor angiogenesis. We generated a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes (Lm-LLO-HMW-MAA-C) that expresses and secretes a fragment of HMW-MAA (residues 2,160–2,258) fused to the first 441 residues of the listeriolysin O (LLO) protein. Immunization with Lm-LLO-HMW-MAA-C was able to impede the tumor growth of early established B16F10-HMW-MAA tumors in mice and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were required for therapeutic efficacy. Immune responses to a known HLA-A2 epitope present in the HMW-MAA2160-2258 fragment was detected in the HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice immunized with Lm-LLO-HMW-MAA-C. Surprisingly, this vaccine also significantly impaired the in vivo growth of other tumorigenic cell lines, such as melanoma, renal carcinoma, and breast tumors, which were not engineered to express HMW-MAA. One hypothesis is that the vaccine could be targeting pericytes, which are important for tumor angiogenesis. In a breast tumor model, immunization with Lm-LLO-HMW-MAA-C caused CD8+ T-cell infiltration in the tumor stroma and a significant decrease in the number of pericytes in the tumor blood vessels. In conclusion, a Lm-based vaccine against HMW-MAA can trigger cell-mediated immune responses to this antigen that can target not only tumor cells but also pericytes in the tumor vasculature.
|In: The FASEB Journal. 2008;22:2297-2310
VEGFR-2 inhibition augments cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses leading to endothelial dysfunction
Indika Edirisinghe, Se-Ran Yang, Hongwei Yao, Saravanan Rajendrasozhan, Samuel Caito, David Adenuga, Chelsea Wong, Arshad Rahman, Richard P. Phipps, Zheng-Gen Jin and Irfan Rahman
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and activates the downstream signaling pathway resulting in endothelial cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Cigarette smoking is associated with abnormal vascular and endothelial function, leading to airspace enlargement. Herein, we investigated the mechanism of cigarette smoke (CS) -induced endothelial dysfunction by studying the VEGF-VEGFR-2 signaling in mouse lung and human endothelial cells. CS exposure caused oxidative stress, as shown by increased levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-adducts in mouse lung and reactive oxygen species generation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-Ls). Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by a specific kinase inhibitor (NVP-AAD777) enhanced the CS-induced oxidative stress, causing augmented inflammatory cell influx and proinflammatory mediators release in mouse lung. The levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated (p) -eNOS in the lungs of mice exposed to CS and/or treated with VEGFR-2 inhibitor were decreased. CS down-regulated VEGFR-2 expression, eNOS levels, and VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in HMVEC-Ls, resulting in impaired VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Overall, these data show that inhibition of VEGFR-2 augmented CS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses leading to endothelial dysfunction. This explains the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction in smokers and has implications in understanding the pathogenesis of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases.